The present-day feature of municipal transport streams in the largest world cities is a high level of traffic load. In turn, transport network overload gives rise to an extensive range of the most acute social and environmental problems. Therefore, reducing the level of transport network loading in cities is the most urgent task for an overwhelming majority of the countries.
The level of road traffic loading in cities can be reduced through application of a variety of traffic management methods. The advanced traffic management practice involves the use of the following basic approaches:
- Development and reconstruction of transport networks;
- More effective use of current transport networks;
- Changing municipal social and economic structure.
The first approach is especially intensively applied in developed countries where considerable financial resources are invested yearly in the development of largest-city transport networks. This approach implies introduction of new transport links or alteration of parameters of the existing links in a transport network. The efficiency in utilizing the existing transport networks is enhanced through the use of automated control systems and other traffic management hardware to influence transport and passenger streams. Unlike the first approach, the second one calls for much lower finance, while the third approach considers transport engineering changes resulting from lifestyle changes.
Hence, approach “more effective use of current transport networks” has been widely adopted during the last decades.
The work on implementation of the above approaches with a view to solving urban transport problems involves variation of parameters of the existing transport network. This, in turn, calls for re-distribution of transport streams in a network of streets, which alters the traffic parameters. As a result, the following question arises: “How will the traffic characteristics change following variation of transport network or lifestyle parameters?”. The above question can be answered due to the use of transport stream modeling methods.
This Chapter presents the reports on scientific study that was carried out by the Department in the sphere of traffic management of urban transport streams.