Transport is one of the most important sectors of public production, which serves the purpose of satisfaction of population and public production requirements in cargo traffic services. The system of traffic is developed and improved by the state in conformity with the national program with the consideration of its priority and basing on the achievements of science-and-technology progress.
The work on carriage of passengers, cargoes, luggage and post, providing other transport services, operation and repair of communication lines is carried out by railway and steamship companies, ports, motor, air, road enterprises and organizations, provided any such work complies with their statutory documents. Transport enterprises provide carriage and other services on the grounds of state contracts, state orders, passenger and cargo traffic agreements with the consideration of economic efficiency of transport carrying and handling capacities. The appropriate cargo traffic obligations become effective at the moment of acceptance of cargo by the carrier along with the relevant shipping documents.
Operation of cargo-carrying transport may have a material impact on the effectiveness of performance of market business entities. Therefore, cutting in transportation costs represents one of the mechanisms, which allows to enhance competitive power of products to be sold.
1 PREPARATION OF CARGOES FOR DISPATCH
1.1 Laying down cargo traffic rules
Basing on the norm-setting reference data , characteristics of cargoes, their class and compatibility can be analyzed.
To carry poultry, one should use station wagons or side-type vehicles (provided with tents). Methods of transportation: cases. Class of cargo: ІІ.
To carry rubber articles, one should use station wagons or side-type vehicles (provided with tents). Methods of transportation: cases. Class of cargo: І.
To carry bakery products, one should use station wagons or side-type vehicles (provided with tents). Methods of transportation: trays. Class of cargo: ІІІ.
To carry tin, one should use station wagons or side-type vehicles (provided with tents). Methods of transportation: cases. Class of cargo: І.
Thus, it has been found that cargo of all types can be carried by station wagons or side-type vehicles (provided with tents).
In the course of implementation of the term paper project the following work is to be done: assessment of the parameters of cargoes to be carried, construction of a transport pattern in the carriage zone, development of routes of traffic of transport facilities, selection of transport facility models for the purposes of transportation.
1.2 Cargo marking procedure
To transport packages, individual shipping cases are fastened with the use of shrink film. Transport marking data are also applied onto package surfaces.
Cases or piles are bound crosswise, using metal tapes of 0.4 mm thickness, 20 mm width, or 4.0-4.5 mm wire, and then are sealed.
The label bearing marking data is applied to the side of each case.
If cargo is to be carried in specially designed station wagons, the products may be allowed to be transported in their original packages.
Transportation in containers may be allowed, provided the containers are furnished with proper shelves or extra packages are used to avoid cargo damage.
The above cargoes may not be transported jointly with food products, as well as with chemical matter.
2 CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSPORT PATTERN AND CALCULATION OF SHORTEST DISTANCES
2.1 Construction of transport pattern
Basing on the mapping data and coordinates of transport process components (enterprises, retail outlets, supermarkets, wholesale storehouses, railway stations), the relevant transport pattern will be constructed in the following sequence:
1. A copy of the map relating to the area under review should be made.
2. The coordinate scale should be applied onto the map.
3. The points of location of transport process components will be indicated on the map. The first coordinate digit designates location of a component in axis X, while the second one – in axis Y.
The point of location of a transport process component should be set within a certain square on one of the roads. If road intersections are available in a particular square, it is advisable that the component location point be set at crossroads. If no roads are available within a particular square, the component location should be marked in the square center, and, referring to it, connection should be made with one of the closest roads shown on the map. If coordinates of more than one component match, such components should be arranged as far as possible from each other within the square.
4. Connection between adjacent components should be made. Every connection to be suggested should assure the shortest-distance travels between all transport process components. All connections should be established visually, without using special distance measurement methods. If passage along several equivalent routes is possible, one of such routes can be chosen.
3 IDENTIFICATION OF ROUTES FOR TRAFFIC FACILITIES
As provided for by the transportation schedule, consignors А1-А5 must ship consignees В1-В10 considerable volumes of large-lot cargoes. Therefore, designation of the routes should be based on cargo carriage by motor transport. Since cargoes pertain to different classes, as far as the factor of load carrying capacity is concerned, the actual volumes should be changed over to desired volumes for auto-ton transportation purposes.
3.1 Purpose of pendulous and combined routes
Pendulous and combined routes are intended for large-lot transportation purposes. To establish the routes of such types, it is found advisable and reasonable that the mercs.exe program be used, which is intended for solution of transport-related tasks.
For the purposes of optimization of the cargo transportation routes, the “table-of-connections” method should be applied , where table ТЗ1 shows the volume of cargo to be shipped by each consignor, while table ТЗ2 shows the volume of empty motor vehicles dispatched by consignees.
3.2 Purpose of delivery routes
Consignor А4 must deliver cargo in small parts (lots) to consignees В1-В8. Hence, to transport such cargo, specific motor vehicles should be used. In this case, special delivery routes should be assigned. The route providing for the minimum consumption of time and cargo carriage costs, depending on the task to be solved, should be recognized as the optimum route. In our case, the minimum total run (mileage) of a motor vehicle along the route is accepted as the optimality criterion. The delivery route calculation should be computer-based and involve the use of program RAZV.bas
4 ASSESSMENT OF MAIN PARAMETERS OF ROUTE TRANSPORT OPERATION
Calculation of the basic technical-and-operational indices is based on the route cartogram.
5 COORDINATION OF OPERATION OF TRANSPORT FACILITIES AND CARGO-HANDLING STATIONS
To coordinate operation of motor vehicles with operation of a loading mechanism, consignor Аі having the largest volume of cargo is taken. According to the source data, such consignor is represented by point А1. Operation of motor vehicles and cargo-handling station is coordinated in respect of “bottle-necks” (queuing points). In this case the direct loading time with the motor vehicle staying in the point of loading is taken as the “bottle-neck”.